Independence of the countries from Britain after World War II Essay
Independence of the countries from Britain after World War II, 493 words essay example
After the "dismantling of the Ottoman Empire"1 Palestine/Transjordan and Iraq were mandated to the British in 1920 and Syria/Lebanon was mandated to the French in 1922. These countries were to be under temporary rule, and promised to receive help gaining their independence in a few years. However, these mandatory powers were not interested in granting independence, but to expand their colonial power, which is why it took some countries over 20 years.
France's promise to grant Syria and Lebanon its independence was insincere.2 They were more concerned with economic advancement and control over their territories than helping them attain autonomy. France failed to "devise an adequate formula for governing the country."3 France had to deal with resentment from nationalists and problems with expenses. The Syrian nationalists used violent acts to get France to withdraw from these countries and give them their independence. It was not until France's fall in World War II and constant pressure from the nationalists did they leave Syria in 1944.
Britain had the easiest time reigning in Transjordan because they allowed Arab administration to rule.4 Allotting Arabs power meant facing less revolts. After World War II
Britain had trouble financing Transjordan which brought them to give up their rule. In 1946, a
treaty was signed giving Transjordan its independence, but Britain would still have a present military there. From the beginning of the mandate in 1920 in Iraq the residents revolted. It was expensive to fix the damages of the revolts, so Britain thought it would be convenient and practical to end their mandate. Instead Britain just kept an influence over their government. In 1932, Iraq gained their independence from Britain being the first in the Middle East and Palestine being the last.
Britain was interested in Palestine because it "provided an overland route to Iraq and its oil reserves,"5 therefore, they tried to prolong their rule. At this time in Palestine there were Arabs and Jews, Britain were in favor of the Jews because they were a "reliable client population."6 The Arab and Jews could never come to an agreement on how the country should be governed. The mandate promised that Jews would take back the rule over Palestine,7 encourage Jewish immigration and Arabs would not face oppression. Britain helped the Jews to advance their education, health and labor facilities, whereas, Arabs facilities were overlooked. Britain started to limit Jewish immigration in 1939,8 which made them an enemy of not only the Arabs but now the Jews. The Civil war between Arab and Jews and revolts against Britain led them to withdraw their mandate in 1948.
The mandate in the Middle East was supposed to take control of these colonies until they could run their government alone. However, it was a way for Britain and France to gain more power and control, disguising this by promising independence. France was never able to control Syria and Lebanon and were driven out. Britain held unfulfilled promises to Arabs and Jews causing tension between the two and making two enemies.