The Source Credibility Model and the Source Attractiveness Model in celebrity athlete endorsers Essay
The Source Credibility Model and the Source Attractiveness Model in celebrity athlete endorsers, 474 words essay example
Various studies have been led inspecting the measurements that make up effective celebrity athlete endorsers (Boyd and Shank, 2004 Braunstein and Zhang, 2005 Braunstein-Minkove, et al., 2011 Fink, et al., 2004 Koernig and Boyd, 2009 Till and Busler, 2000). In any case, to date research has neglected to approach the point in a far reaching way. An examination of endorser literature demonstrates that choice foundation of an effective endorser is fundamentally taking into account two primary models, the Source Credibility Model (Hovland, et al., 1953 Hovland and Weiss, 1951 McGuire, 1968) and the Source Attractiveness Model (McGuire, 1985). The source validity model proposes that an endorser will be effective when they are seen as having expertise and trustworthiness (Hovland et al., 1953 Hovland and Weiss, 1951). In 1990 Ohanian included the measurement of appeal which has since been connected with the model. The source engaging quality model demonstrates that an effective endorser is one who the consumer see to be similar, familiar, and likable (McGuire, 1985). As to these source models, a hole in the literature has been found. These two models are generally connected with celebrity athlete endorser research yet have just been joined in a little number of studies. This study will build up a measuring scale utilizing the source models as a part of request to survey celebrity tennis player endorser effectiveness.
This part gives an audit of writing on the subject of celebrity athlete endorsers. To begin with, data is given on celebrity endorsers including the focal points and hindrances of this marketing procedure. Next, other endorsement effectiveness models are talked about including the Match-up Hypothesis (Mowen, Brown, Schulman, 1979), the Transfer of Meaning Process (McCraken, 1989), the Source Credibility Model (Hovland, et al., 1953 Hovland and Weiss, 1951 McGuire, 1968) and the Source Attractiveness Model (McGuire, 1985). Accentuation will be given to the components connected with the source credibility and source attractiveness models alongside an audit of scales intended to inspect elements incorporated into these models. At last, support will be given with regards to the need to build up an instrument to quantify a celebrity athlete endorser's expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, similarity, likability, and familiarity.
McCraken (1989) defined a celebrity endorser as "any individual who enjoys public recognition and uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement" (p. 310). American culture in particular is fascinated with celebrities (Schickel, 1985). Oftentimes when an individual achieves celebrity status their identity is lost and is replaced as a personality or even a brand (Braunstein and Zhang, 2005). Capitalizing on this fascination and manufactured personality, celebrities have become commonplace in advertising strategy (Choi, et al., 2005). This strategy is utilized within four item underwriting styles which McCracken (1989) notes include "the explicit mode ("I support this item"), the implicit mode ("I utilize this item"), the imperative mode, ("You ought to utilize this item"), and the co-present mode (i.e., in which the celebrity simply appears with the item)" (p. 310).