Breast cancer: risk factors, causes, and methods for detection, 496 words essay example
Risk factors for breast cancer
Causes for the breast cancer are complicated and difficult to understand. Experts blame that some negative changes like unbalance diet, less exercise, multiple baby births, baby birth in early age, baby birth in later age, menarche at later stage, hormonal replacement increase the risk of breast cancer in women. If more family members are affected than the risk of breast cancer increases but the women with no cancerous family history have low risk. If the affected relatives are more close than the risk for this disease (breast cancer) increases. Closeness with affected relatives increases risk. By bearing many other diseases can cause breast cancer as well as ovarian cancer. This type of cancer is also common in women. Claus modal and Gail models are used for the estimation of the risk of breast cancer on the basis of family history.
Methods for the detection of Breast Cancer
At early stages this disease is under control but at last stages cannot cure. There are several methods for the detection of breast cancer in which most common are mammography, Biopsy, Breast selfexamination includes.
Mammography includes the Xray of breasts. Tumors, dense breast tissues are identified in the breasts either these are present or not. For the mammography special machines are designed. This method is expensive but usually for the checking of breast cancer this is method is used by the doctors.
2. Breast selfexamination
If selfexamination done properly than this is effective method like mammography. Patients suffering from this disease can check themselves by hand either any tumor is present or not. All women should check regularly themselves by selfexamination. By doing this method breast cancer can control at initial stages by consulting with doctors.
In the method of biopsy small clump tissues are taken by small injection like instruments from the tumors and then examine these extracts by specific methods.
Breast cancer is most common disease in the females. Its ratio is high in females as compared to men. This disease has specific symptoms like change in color of skin, shrinkage of skin at breasts, tumor formation, fluid secretion from breasts etc. Behind breast cancer there are many causes which may or may not genially. Mutations in specific genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause breast cancer by the formation of tumors, because these genes are tumor suppresser genes and control the regulation of cell divisions. When these genes get mutations than there production proteins also changes and there signaling also disturbs. And these genes also involve in regulation of other genes but when these get mutations than there function this regulation disturbs and many other diseases also occurs. And the occurrence of other diseases may cause breast cancer. Some other genes like TP53, ATM and PTEN also responsible for breast cancer indirectly. Other than genes many other factors also responsible for breast cancers. There are several methods for the diagnosis of breast cancer like mammography, breast selfexamination and biopsy etc.
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