Glycine max as the major isoflavonoid compounds Essay
Glycine max as the major isoflavonoid compounds, 470 words essay example
Glycine max are the major isoflavonoid compounds (Graham and Graham 1991) and renowned for their antiestrogenic, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiviral, antiallergic, antibacterial effects in animal cells (Vadivel et al., 2015).
Isoflavonoids performed a wide range of biological activities. They also have a vital role in plants interaction with environment. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation is the key process of legumes. Isoflavonoids perform as signaling molecules in this process. They give signal to nitrogenfixing bacteria and help to start the root nodules and nitrogen fixation process (Phillip 1992 Subramanian et al. 2006). The jasmonic acid and salicylic acid which are known as defence signal elicitor stimulate the biosynthesis of such type of flavonoids (Subramanian et al., 2007 Misra et al., 2010a). Isoflavonoids play important role against biotic and abiotic stresses like resistance against plant disease (Dixon 2001) and insects (Graham and Graham 2000 Lozovaya et al. 2004 Zabala et al. 2006 Naoumkina et al. 2007), act as precursors for phytoalexins compounds (Dixon and Ferreira 2002 Akashi et al. 2003 Shimada et al. 2007 Lozovaya et al. 2007). Furthermore, a new role of root isoflavonoids was reported in the soybean rhizosphere. They act as spatiotemporal influence on soybean rhizosphere microflora (White et al. 2015). When a pathogen attacks on soybean, the leaves Isoflavonoids perform their role as antimicrobial phytoalexins against that pathogen (Lozovaya et al. 2004 Subramanian et al. 2005). An experiment was performed in which the main genes involved in the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway made salient by RNAi that led in the decrease of isoflavonoid levels in soybean roots. Those plants showed low level of resistance to Phytophthora sojae (Graham et al. 2007).
The human and animals must introduce to a diet which contains a sufficient amount of isoflavonoids and Soybean is the main source of that diet. The positive correlation between isoflavonoid containing diet and numerous human health advantages were observed in some studies (Messina 2010). When the estrogen level is low or high, Isoflavones can work as a regulator by applying the estrogenic agonist or antagonist effects, respectively (Simons et al. 2012). Many reports advocated a link between soybased diets and the declining the risk against heart disease, cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease (Joung et al. 2003 Sarkar and Li 2003 Cornwell et al. 2004 Dixon 2004 Ali et al. 2005 Cogolludo et al. 2007 Kottra and Daniel 2007 Moore et al.2007 Di et al. 2008). Isoflavonoid supplemented diet also decrease the postmenopausal problems such as hot flashes (Howes et al. 2006) and osteoporosis (Potter et al. 1998).
Soybean seeds contain at least nine different isoflavonoids. There are three aglycones (daidzein, glycitein and genistein), their corresponding 7OD glycosides (daidzin, glycitin and genistin), and 6Omalonyl7OD glycosides (malonyldaidzin, malonylglycitin and malonylgenistin) (Kudou et al. 1991). The malonyl derivatives of isoflavones are thermally unstable and are subsequently converted into their corresponding 6Oacetyl7OD glycosides (acetyldaidzin, acetylglycitin and acetylgenistin) during the processing of soy foods (Griffith and Collison 2001). Conjugation of a isoflavone aglycone with a glucose or a malonylglucose molecule increases the